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Parainfluenza in Dogs

Parainfluenza in Dogs

Every dog is at risk for respiratory illness caused by the highly contagious virus called canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV). Today, our Gold Canyon vets discuss the causes, signs, and treatment of parainfluenza in dogs.

Canine Parainfluenza Virus

Parainfluenza's respiratory symptoms are similar to those seen in dogs with canine influenza. However, these viruses are markedly different and will require different vaccinations and treatments. Both are highly contagious and are often found in areas that are densely populated with dogs, including kennels, shelters, and race tracks. 

The highly contagious parainfluenza virus infection infects the lungs and can cause infectious tracheobronchitis, also referred to as 'kennel cough'

Signs & Symptoms of Parainfluenza in Dogs

The severity and intensity of the symptoms of parainfluenza listed below can carry depending on the infected dog's age and the host's immune system:

  • Coughing - This may either be a dry cough or moist and productive (with blood)
  • Decreased energy 
  • Decreased appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Nose discharge - may include pus, mucus, or blood

Keep in mind that the virus itself may be a component of other canine respiratory diseases, particularly Bordetella, kennel cough, and canine adenovirus-2. 

What Causes Parainfluenza in Dogs?

Viral parainfluenza is transmitted via the air dogs breathe. This is why it's so contagious, especially for dogs who live with or spend a significant amount of time with other dogs. 

Related to canine distemper, parainfluenza shares respiratory symptoms with that condition including a hacking dry cough and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, trachea, and larynx. Puppies and senior dogs with compromised immune systems are at higher risk. Because throat irritation can lead to thick secretions, toy breeds are more prone to pneumonia. 

The symptoms of canine parainfluenza virus infections are listed below. The severity or intensity of these symptoms may vary depending on the age of the infected dog and the host's immune system:

  • Coughing - This can be either a dry cough or moist and productive (can include blood)
  • Low-grade fever
  • Discharge from the nose - This can be mucus, pus, or even blood
  • Decreased energy
  • Decreased appetite

The virus itself can be a component of other canine respiratory diseases, most notably kennel cough, Bordetella, and canine adenovirus-2.

Diagnosing Parainfluenza in Dogs

The vet will require a detailed history from you. The parainfluenza virus is easily spread in boarding kennels, grooming salons, and other places where a large number of dogs congregate. It is critical to provide information about your pet's whereabouts within 2 to 4 weeks of the first symptoms appearing in your family pet.

A health history and vaccination history will be required. Any contact with other canines, regardless of the environment in which that contact occurred, could be part of the infective process, so provide as much detail as possible.

The veterinarian will perform a physical examination, as well as some diagnostics like blood tests, cultures, and testing of fluid and tissue samples. He may also need to use imaging techniques such as radiography (X-ray) to determine whether there are any masses or parasitic involvement. Once all of the testing results have been received and analyzed, a treatment plan will be developed and implemented.

Treating Parainfluenza in Dogs

Because the virus is highly contagious to other canines, your vet is unlikely to recommend hospitalization unless the situation is dire. Instead of hospitalization, your veterinarian may make management recommendations, which will most likely include:

  • Recommendations for healthy eating, hygiene, and nursing care
  • Recommendations for corrective action for any environmental factors suspected of being contributors
  • Cough suppressants containing codeine derivatives should be used only for long-term, ineffective cough relief.
  • Severe chronic cases may necessitate antibiotics such as cephalosporins, quinolones, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; the appropriate antibiotic medication will most likely be chosen based on the results of the cultures taken and analyzed.
  • Some treatment options may include bronchodilator pretreatment followed by aerosolization treatments.

Parainfluenza Vaccine for Dogs

To prevent your dog from contracting parainfluenza (or greatly reduce their risk), we recommend bringing your dog in for the appropriate vaccination

At Companion Pet Clinic of Arizona, we give dogs the DHPP (Distemper, Hepatitis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus) vaccine between 6 to 8 weeks of age. Then we give boosters between 10-12 weeks old, 14-16 weeks old, and 12 months to 16 months old. After that, it is highly recommended to schedule your dog's annual vaccinations and routine exams to protect them from parainfluenza and a host of other diseases too.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Looking to vaccinate your dog against the parainfluenza virus? Contact our Gold Canyon vets today.

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